Background: Few previous studies have investigated consumption distributions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) over time and individual-level associations despite recent interest in SSBs regarding obesity control.
Objective: To assess consumption patterns and individual-level associations.
Design: Trend and cross-sectional analyses of 24-hour dietary recall data and demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status (SES) drawn from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008) data.
Participants/setting: Children (aged 2 to 11 years, n=8,627), adolescents (aged 12 to 19 years, n=8,922), young adults (aged 20 to 34 years, n=5,933), and middle-aged and elder adults (aged ≥35 years, n=16,456).
Statistical analyses performed: Age-stratified regression analyses for SSBs overall and by subtypes.
Results: The prevalence of heavy total SSB consumption (≥500 kcal/day) increased among children (4% to 5%) although it decreased among adolescents (22% to 16%) and young adults (29% to 20%). Soda was the most heavily consumed SSB in all age groups except for children. Prevalence of soda consumption decreased, whereas heavy sports/energy drink consumption tripled (4% to 12%) among adolescents. Black children and adolescents showed higher odds of heavy fruit drink consumption (odds ratios 1.71 and 1.67) than whites. Low-income children had a higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (odds ratio 1.93) and higher energy intake from total SSBs and fruit drinks (by 23 and 27 kcal/day) than high-income children. Adolescents with low- vs high-educated parents had higher odds of heavy total SSB consumption (odds ratio 1.28) and higher energy intake from total SSBs and soda (by 27 and 21 kcal/day). Low vs high SES was associated with a higher odds of heavy consumption of total SSBs, soda, and fruit drinks among adults.
Conclusions: Prevalence of soda consumption fell, but consumption of nontraditional SSBs rose. Heterogeneity of heavy consumption by SSB types across racial/ethnic subpopulations and higher odds of heavy SSB consumption among low-SES populations should be considered in targeting policies to encourage healthful beverage consumption.
Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.