The effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on oxidant and anti-oxidant status in smokers with chronic periodontitis

Arch Oral Biol. 2013 Jun;58(6):717-23. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.11.009. Epub 2012 Dec 20.


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum oxidant-antioxidant levels in smoking and non-smoking patients with chronic periodontitis.

Methods: Twenty-nine patients with chronic periodontitis (15 smokers (CP-S) and 14 non-smokers (CP-NS)) and 20 periodontally healthy subjects (10 smokers (H-S) and 10 non-smokers (H-NS)) totalling 49 subjects were included in this study. GCF was collected from at least two pre-selected sites (one moderate and one deep pocket) in patients with CP. In the healthy group, GCF samples were collected from one site. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival and plaque indices, and bleeding on probing were measured. To determine serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS), venous blood was drawn from each subject. The GCF, serum sampling, and clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 6 weeks after periodontal treatment.

Results: The study showed statistically significant improvement of clinical parameters after periodontal treatment in both smokers and non-smokers. In the CP-S group, there were no significant differences in GCF TAS levels at both moderate and deep pocket sites between baseline and 6 weeks (p>0.05). GCF TAS levels in the CP-NS groups were significantly increased (p<0.05) at moderate and deep pocket sites between baseline and 6 weeks. GCF TOS levels in the CP-S groups were significantly decreased (p<0.05) at deep pocket sites between baseline and 6 weeks. There was no significant difference in serum TAS levels of the all periodontitis patient groups between at baseline and 6 weeks (p>0.05). Serum TOS levels in the CP-S and CP-NS groups were significantly decreased (p<0.05) after periodontal treatments.

Conclusions: The periodontal treatment improves the clinical parameters in both smokers and non-smokers. These results confirm that non-surgical periodontal therapy can reduce oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Benzothiazoles
  • Chronic Periodontitis / blood
  • Chronic Periodontitis / therapy*
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Dental Scaling / methods
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Male
  • Oral Hygiene / education
  • Oxidants / blood
  • Oxidants / chemistry*
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / blood
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / therapy
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontal Pocket / blood
  • Periodontal Pocket / therapy
  • Phenols
  • Root Planing / methods
  • Smoking / blood
  • Smoking / metabolism*
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Sulfonic Acids
  • Sulfoxides


  • Antioxidants
  • Benzothiazoles
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Indicators and Reagents
  • Oxidants
  • Phenols
  • Sulfonic Acids
  • Sulfoxides
  • 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid
  • xylenol orange