Concurrent determination of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in maternal and fetal rhesus monkeys

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Feb 15;267(1):41-8. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.12.006. Epub 2012 Dec 19.


Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (>90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 μg/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 μg/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) were attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / pharmacokinetics*
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / drug effects
  • Fetal Blood / metabolism
  • Fetus / drug effects
  • Fetus / metabolism*
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange / drug effects
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange / physiology*
  • Phenols / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pregnancy / blood*
  • Pregnancy / drug effects
  • Pregnancy / metabolism


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A