Conditional genome engineering in Toxoplasma gondii uncovers alternative invasion mechanisms

Nat Methods. 2013 Feb;10(2):125-7. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2301. Epub 2012 Dec 23.


We established a conditional site-specific recombination system based on dimerizable Cre recombinase-mediated recombination in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using a new single-vector strategy that allows ligand-dependent, efficient removal of a gene of interest, we generated three knockouts of apicomplexan genes considered essential for host-cell invasion. Our findings uncovered the existence of an alternative invasion pathway in apicomplexan parasites.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Gene Knockout Techniques / methods
  • Genome, Protozoan*
  • Host-Parasite Interactions / genetics
  • Integrases
  • Toxoplasma / genetics*


  • Cre recombinase
  • Integrases