In 14 patients with biopsy-proved lymphangiomyomatosis, disease extent at computed tomography (CT) was correlated with findings at chest radiography and pulmonary-function testing. The CT scans and chest radiographs were read independently by two chest radiologists. Disease extent was assessed on CT scans by using a visual score (0%-100% involvement of the lung parenchyma) and on radiographs by using an adaptation of the International Labour Office classification of the pneumoconioses. There was good concordance between the two observers for CT and radiographic scores (Kendall tau greater than or equal to .86, P less than .01). A significant but relatively low correlation was present between CT findings and radiographic severity of disease (r = .59, P less than .05). Impairment in gas exchange as assessed with the diffusing capacity correlated better with disease extent seen on CT scans (r = .69) than with chest radiographic findings (r = .59). Three patients had evidence of parenchymal disease on the CT scans but not on the radiographs. In one patient CT findings were negative despite a positive finding on chest radiographs. The authors conclude that CT is superior to chest radiography in the assessment of patients with lymphangiomyomatosis.