The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is generally 5-7.5% in all acute care hospitalizations and accounts for up to 20% of admissions to intensive care units (ICUs). Of all of the cases of AKI during hospitalization, approximately 30-40% are observed in operative settings. AKI is a serious morbidity that is associated with greater length of hospital stay, high risk of hospital mortality, and increased risk of incident and progressive chronic kidney disease. The incidence of AKI is variable depending on the specific surgical setting under consideration. Much of our knowledge regarding the epidemiology of AKI is derived from studies related to cardiac or vascular surgery. With limited treatment options, prevention of AKI and amelioration of its severity remain important cornerstones of improving patient outcomes. The magnitude of the problem and the unique set of patient characteristics calls for a multidisciplinary approach for the perioperative management of renal complications. The purpose of the review presented here is to discuss the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology and risk factors, outcomes, diagnoses, and prevention and treatment of AKI during the perioperative period in cardiovascular and noncardiovascular surgical settings.
Published by Elsevier Inc.