The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the key component of the protein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, plays a critical role in cellular development, tissue regeneration, and repair. mTOR signaling can govern not only stem cell development and quiescence but also cell death during apoptosis or autophagy. Recent studies highlight the importance of both traditional and newly recognized interactors of mTOR, such as p70S6K, 4EBP1, GSK-3β, REDD1/RTP801, TSC1/TSC2, growth factors, wingless, and forkhead transcription factors, that influence Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, tuberous sclerosis, and epilepsy. Targeting mTOR in the nervous system can offer exciting new avenues of drug discovery, but crucial to this premise is elucidating the complexity of mTOR signaling for robust and safe clinical outcomes.
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