Background & aims: Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection frequently also are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) (co-infection), but little is known about its effects on the progression of HIV-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of co-infection on mortality from HIV and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and hepatitis or liver disease, adjusting for the duration of HIV infection.
Methods: We analyzed data from the 16 cohorts of the Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) collaboration, which included information on HCV infection and cause of death. A competing-risks proportional subdistribution hazards model was used to evaluate the effect of HCV infection on the following causes of death: HIV- and/or AIDS-related, hepatitis- or liver-related, natural, and non-natural.
Results: Of 9164 individuals with HIV infection and a known date of seroconversion, 2015 (22.0%) also were infected with HCV. Of 718 deaths, 395 (55.0%) were caused by HIV infection and/or AIDS, and 39 (5.4%) were caused by hepatitis or liver-related disease. Among individuals infected with only HIV or with co-infection, the mortality from HIV infection and/or AIDS-related causes and hepatitis or liver disease decreased significantly after 1997, when combination antiretroviral therapy became widely available. However, after 1997, HIV and/or AIDS-related mortality was higher among co-infected individuals than those with only HIV infection in each risk group: injection drug use (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-5.20), sex between men and women or hemophilia (aHR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.70-6.93), and sex between men (aHR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.49-6.48). Compared with individuals infected with only HIV, co-infected individuals had a higher risk of death from hepatitis or liver disease.
Conclusions: Based on analysis of data from the CASCADE collaboration, since 1997, when combination antiretroviral therapy became widely available, individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV have had a higher risk of death from HIV and/or AIDS, and from hepatitis or liver disease, than patients infected with only HIV. It is necessary to evaluate the effects of HCV therapy on HIV progression.
Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.