A potential role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has been previously suggested. In a recent study we examined levels of three inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1α and RANTES) in samples of amniotic fluid of children diagnosed later in life with ASD and controls frequency-matched to cases on gender and year of birth. In this follow-up study, levels of the same chemokines were analyzed postnatally in dried blood spot samples from the same subjects utilizing the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank. Crude estimates showed decreased levels of RANTES. In the adjusted estimates, no differences were found in levels of the three examined chemokines in ASD cases compared to controls. Our findings may cautiously suggest an altered cell-mediated immunity during the early neonatal period in ASD. Further research is needed to examine the relationship between maternal/fetal and neonatal chemokine levels and their role in ASD.
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