Antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic properties of the nonsedating second-generation antihistamine desloratadine: a review of the evidence

World Allergy Organ J. 2011 Feb;4(2):47-53. doi: 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182093e19. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

Abstract

The allergy cascade presents widespread inflammatory and proinflammatory activation, robust cytokine and chemokine signaling, and heterogeneous immune and endothelial responses that lead ultimately to the manifestations of allergic reaction. Histamine, a small peptide with inherent vasoactive properties, is released from granules contained within mast cells, basophils, lymphocytes, and other reservoirs and interacts with histamine receptors to regulate numerous cellular functions involved in allergic inflammation and immune modulation. Of the known histamine receptors, the H(1)-receptor is most clearly associated with potentiation of proinflammatory immune cell activity and enhanced effector function and is the prime focus of suppressive therapy. Second-generation oral H(1)-antihistamines, such as cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, and loratadine, are mainstays of allergy treatment, acting as highly specific, long-acting H(1)-receptor agonists at its unique receptor. The ongoing identification of immune effector cells and mediators involved in the allergic cascade indicates that further research is necessary to define the role of antihistamines such as desloratadine in anti-inflammatory therapy.