GPC-1 may serve as a predictor of perineural invasion and a prognosticator of survival in pancreatic cancer

Asian J Surg. 2013 Jan;36(1):7-12. doi: 10.1016/j.asjsur.2012.08.001. Epub 2012 Sep 16.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), glypican-1 (GPC-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and their association with clinicopathologic characteristics as well as prognostic significance in pancreatic cancer.

Methods: Immunohistochemical assessment of GDNF, GPC-1, and MMP-9 was performed in 62 cases of surgically resected pancreatic cancer. Perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer was observed by marking nerve fiber with S-100, while 16 normal pancreatic tissues were used as normal control. Correlations of GDNF, GPC-1 and MMP-9 expressions with clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed. A survival analysis was performed to find the prognostic significance.

Results: The expressions of GDNF, GPC-1 and MMP-9 in pancreatic cancer tissue were significantly higher than of those in normal pancreatic tissues (41/62 vs. 5/16 for GDNF, 35/62 vs. 2/16 for GPC-1, and 37/62 vs. 3/16 for MMP-9; p<0.01, respectively). The overexpression of GDNF, GPC-1, and MMP-9 in pancreatic cancer tissue was significantly related to the perineural invasion (p<0.05). Although the overexpression of these genes was related to poor survival, GPC-1 had an independent prognostic effect on overall survival.

Conclusion: GPC-1 is significantly related to the perineural invasion of pancreatic cancer, holding some prognostic significance in patients with pancreatic cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / mortality*
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology*
  • Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / surgery
  • Female
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / analysis
  • Glypicans / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / analysis
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • Nerve Fibers / pathology
  • Pancreas / innervation
  • Pancreas / pathology
  • Pancreatectomy
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • Peripheral Nerves / pathology*
  • Prognosis
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Survival Analysis


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • GDNF protein, human
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Glypicans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9