Objective: To validate the revised Japanese Ministry of Health criteria for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) (JPN) (1999), The American-European Consensus Group classification criteria for SS (AECG) (2002), and American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SS (ACR) (2012).
Methods: The study subjects were 694 patients with SS or suspected SS who were followed-up in June 2012 at ten hospitals that form part of the Research Team for Autoimmune Diseases, The Research Program for Intractable Disease by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). All patients had been checked for all four criteria of the JPN (pathology, oral, ocular, anti-SS-A/SS-B antibodies). We studied the clinical diagnosis made by the physician in charge and the satisfaction of the above criteria.
Results: Of the 694 patients, 499 patients did not have other connective tissue diseases (CTDs). SS was diagnosed in 476 patients (primary SS in 302, secondary SS in 174), whereas non-SS was diagnosed in 218 patients (without other CTDs in 197, with other CTDs in 21) by the physician in charge. The sensitivities of JPN, AECG, and ACR in the diagnosis of all forms of SS (both primary and secondary SS) were 79.6, 78.6, and 77.5 %, respectively, with respective specificities of 90.4, 90.4, and 83.5 %. The sensitivities of the same systems in the diagnosis of primary SS were 82.1, 83.1, and 79.1 %, respectively, with specificities of 90.9, 90.9, and 84.8 %, respectively. The sensitivities of the same systems in the diagnosis of secondary SS were 75.3, 70.7, and 74.7 %, respectively, with specificities of 85.7, 85.7, and 71.4 %, respectively.
Conclusion: The sensitivity of JPN to all forms of SS and secondary SS, the sensitivity of AECG to primary SS, and the specificities of JPN and AECG for all forms of SS, primary SS, and secondary SS were highest in the diagnosis of SS in Japanese patients. These results indicate that the JPN criteria for the diagnosis of SS in Japanese patients are superior to ACR and AECG.