Tissue distribution and clearance of intravenously administered titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles

Nanotoxicology. 2014 Mar;8(2):132-41. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2012.763001. Epub 2013 Jan 24.


The organ-tissue distribution and clearance of Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were determined after intravenous administration to rats (0.95 mg/kg bodyweight) using an inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer. The detection limits of Ti analysis, 0.54 and 1.4 ng/mL for blood and urine and 0.35-2.0 ng/g tissue for several organ tissues, enabled determination of tissue distribution and clearance for organs in which Ti content could not be previously determined due to low concentrations. Blood concentrations of TiO2 were 420 and 19 ng/mL at 5 and 15 min after administration, which were equivalent of only 2.8% and 0.13% of the administration dose, respectively. At 6 h, 94%, 2.0%, 0.17%, 0.023%, 0.014% and 0.026% of administered TiO2 was found in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney, heart and blood, respectively. Liver and spleen TiO2 burden was significantly higher in the administration than control group (p < 0.01) and did not decrease up to 30 days after administration, while TiO2 burden in the lung, kidney, heart and blood decreased over time. A two-step decay model was more suitable than a one-step decay model for the decay curves of pulmonary TiO2 burden but did not improve fitting to the decay curves of kidney TiO2 burden. No translocation to the brain was confirmed at a lower detection limit than was applied in previous studies. Ti content in faeces and urine in the TiO2 administration group did not differ from that in the control group.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis
  • Animals
  • Drinking Water / chemistry
  • Feces / chemistry
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Kidney / chemistry
  • Lung / chemistry
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Metal Nanoparticles / administration & dosage
  • Metal Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Titanium / administration & dosage
  • Titanium / analysis
  • Titanium / pharmacokinetics*


  • Drinking Water
  • titanium dioxide
  • Titanium