RNA-interacting proteins act as site-specific repressors of ADAR2-mediated RNA editing and fluctuate upon neuronal stimulation

Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Feb 1;41(4):2581-93. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1353. Epub 2012 Dec 28.


RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) diversifies the transcriptome by changing adenosines to inosines. In mammals, editing levels vary in different tissues, during development, and also in pathogenic conditions. From a screen for repressors of editing we have isolated three proteins that repress ADAR2-mediated RNA editing. The three proteins RPS14, SFRS9 and DDX15 interact with RNA. Overexpression or depletion of these proteins can decrease or increase editing levels by 15%, thus allowing a modulation of RNA editing up to 30%. Interestingly, the three proteins alter RNA editing in a substrate-specific manner that correlates with their RNA binding preferences. In mammalian cells, SFRS9 significantly affects editing of the two substrates CFLAR and cyFIP2, while the ribosomal protein RPS14 mostly inhibits editing of cyFIP2 messenger RNA. The helicase DDX15, in turn, has a strong effect on editing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Expression of the three factors decreases during mouse brain development. Moreover, expression levels of SFRS9 and DDX15 respond strongly to neuronal stimulation or repression, showing an inverse correlation with editing levels. Colocalization and immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate a direct interaction of SFRS9 and RPS14 with ADAR2, while DDX15 associates with other helicases and splicing factors. Our data show that different editing sites can be specifically altered in their editing pattern by changing the local RNP landscape.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Deaminase / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Brain / embryology
  • Brain / growth & development
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • RNA / metabolism
  • RNA Editing*
  • RNA Helicases / metabolism
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Ribosomal Proteins / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors


  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Ribosomal Proteins
  • Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors
  • RNA
  • ADARB1 protein, human
  • Adenosine Deaminase
  • RNA Helicases