The FLT3 gene with internal tandem duplication (ITD) is a poor prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for AML patients with FLT3-ITD is controversial. We examined 122 AML patients; 34 patients had FLT3-ITD and 39 patients received allogeneic HSCT. The median overall survival (OS) of patients with wtFLT3/nonHSCT, wtFLT3/HSCT, FLT3-ITD/nonHSCT and FLT3-ITD/HSCT was 40.7 months, 53.4 months, 9.8 months and not reached, respectively (p=0.006). Compared to the wtFLT3/nonHSCT patients, the hazard ratio (95% CI) of OS for wtFLT3/HSCT, FLT3-ITD/nonHSCT and FLT3-ITD/HSCT was 1.39 (0.61-3.18), 3.57 (1.58-8.10) and 0.40 (0.11-1.59), respectively, after adjustment of age, sex, WBC, LDH, karyotype, NPM, and FAB classification. This result indicated that patients with FLT3-ITD/nonHSCT had a significantly worse outcome, but allogeneic HSCT improved the prognosis for patients with FLT3-ITD.
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