Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics

Expert Rev Med Devices. 2013 Jan;10(1):45-54. doi: 10.1586/erd.12.68.


One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amputation Stumps / physiopathology*
  • Amputees / rehabilitation*
  • Artificial Limbs*
  • Biofeedback, Psychology / instrumentation*
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Feedback, Sensory*
  • Humans
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Upper Extremity / physiopathology*