Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season

Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Nov;61:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.12.001. Epub 2012 Dec 29.


Elite athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to evaluate blood biomarkers of redox status, oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis over the course of a competitive season in elite female water polo players. The biomarkers were evaluated in four distinct phases of an athletic season. It was found that the reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly increased, whereas catalase activity was decreased in erythrocytes in phases 3 and 4 compared to phase 2. Plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased in phases 3 and 4 compared to phases 1 and 2, the concentration of protein carbonyls was increased in phase 4, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was decreased in phases 2 and 3. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was decreased in phases 3 and 4; interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in phase 4, whereas no change was observed for adiponectin and endoglin. The findings of this study indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation varies over the season in elite female water polo athletes and this information might be used to apply remedies for optimizing athletic performance and accelerating training recovery.

Keywords: 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine; 5,5′-dithiobis-2 nitrobenzoate; ANOVA; Angiogenesis; Biomarkers; CAT; CV; DNPH; DPPH; DTNB; EDTA; GSH; GSSG; H(2)O(2); HCL; Hb; Hct; IL-10; Inflammation; MCP-1; Oxidative stress; PC; RPE; SEM; Season; TAC; TBARS; TCA; Tris-HCl; VO(2max); WTL; Water polo; analysis of variance; catalase; coefficients of variation; ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; hematocrit; hemoglobin; hydrochloride; hydrogen peroxide; interleukin-10; maximal oxygen consumption; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; oxidized glutathione; protein carbonyls; rating of perceived exertion; reduced glutathione; standard error of mean; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; total antioxidant capacity; trichloroacetic acid; trishydroxymethylaminomethane hydrochloride; weekly training load.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Athletes*
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Catalase / blood
  • Chemokine CCL2 / blood
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Glutathione / blood
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Interleukin-10 / blood
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology*
  • Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • CCL2 protein, human
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • IL10 protein, human
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • Interleukin-10
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione