Scope: Feeding a diet supplemented with 10% (w/w) black and brown rice brans inhibited growth of transplanted tumors in mice.
Methods and results: Black and brown rice brans from Oryza sativa LK1-3-6-12-1 and Chuchung cultivars each contained 21 compounds characterized by GC/MS. Mice fed diets with added rice brans for 2 weeks were intracutaneously inoculated with CT-26 mouse cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was 35 and 19% lower in the black and brown bran-fed groups, respectively. Tumor inhibition was associated with increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages; increases in released tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; increases in infiltration of leukocyte into the tumor; and reduction in angiogenesis inside the tumor. Proangiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) were also reduced in mRNA and protein expression. ELISA of tumor cells confirmed reduced expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Reduced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression downregulated vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibited neoangiogenesis inside the tumors.
Conclusion: Induction of NK activity and macrophages and inhibition of angiogenesis seem to contribute to tumor regression.
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