Background: Mounting evidence has suggested that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a candidate for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Studies have reported that insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene may influence the risk of this disease. To comprehensively address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Data were retrieved in a systematic manner and analyzed using Review Manager and STATA Statistical Software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations.
Results: Nine studies with 1, 217 cases and 1, 459 controls were included. Allelic and genotypic comparisons between cases and controls were evaluated. Overall analysis suggests a marginal association of the 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.26; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.04 to 1.64; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.52). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, we found an association among the Caucasian population (for 4G versus 5G: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.30; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.74; for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G + 4G/5G: OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.13 to 1.77). When stratified by the average duration of diabetes, patients with diabetes histories longer than 10 years have an elevated susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy than those with shorter histories (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G: OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.08 to 2.00). We also detected a higher risk in hospital-based studies (for 4G/4G versus 5G/5G+4G/5G: OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.02 to 1.57).
Conclusions: The present meta-analysis suggested that 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 gene potentially increased the risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes and showed a discrepancy in different ethnicities. A higher susceptibility in patients with longer duration of diabetes (more than 10 years) indicated a gene-environment interaction in determining the risk of diabetic retinopathy.