Background: Integrated rapid mapping to target interventions for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and lymphatic filariasis (LF) is ongoing in South Sudan. From May to September 2010, three states--Unity, Eastern Equatoria and Central Equatoria--were surveyed with the aim of identifying which administrative areas are eligible for mass drug administration (MDA) of preventive chemotherapy (PCT).
Methods and principal findings: Payams (third administrative tier) were surveyed for Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and STH infections while counties (second administrative tier) were surveyed for LF. Overall, 12,742 children from 193 sites were tested for schistosome and STH infection and, at a subset of 50 sites, 3,980 adults were tested for LF. Either S. mansoni or S. haematobium or both species were endemic throughout Unity State and occurred in foci in Central and Eastern Equatoria. STH infection was endemic throughout Central Equatoria and the western counties of Eastern Equatoria, while LF was endemic over most of Central- and Eastern Equatoria, but only in selected foci in Unity. All areas identified as STH endemic were co-endemic for schistosomiasis and/or LF.
Conclusions: The distribution and prevalence of major NTDs, particularly schistosomiasis, varies considerably throughout South Sudan. Rapid mapping is therefore important in identifying (co)-endemic areas. The present survey established that across the three surveyed states between 1.2 and 1.4 million individuals are estimated to be eligible for regular MDA with PCT to treat STH and schistosomiasis, respectively, while approximately 1.3 million individuals residing in Central- and Eastern Equatoria are estimated to require MDA for LF.