This retrospective study defines a population with neoplastic colonic polyps who have had colonoscopic polypectomy and, in follow-up within one year, a repeat colonoscopic evaluation. The population was broken down into two groups, one group that had polyps at the second examination and one group that did not. This study determined which factor(s) were significant among this population in distinguishing whether new polyps would be found at one year follow-up. The authors found that among the many variables studied, only polyp multiplicity was significant in predicting polyp recurrence. More than one polyp found at index colonoscopy led to a significant chance of having a new polyp after only one year. Also, it was demonstrated that these "new" polyps were unlikely to have been "missed" polyps from the initial colonoscopy. Because of the shifting location, smaller size, and fewer instances of histologic atypia in these polyps compared with those at index examination, the authors believe that polyps found after one year may be assumed to have arisen de novo. Finally, the authors show that a significant number of polyps occur beyond the reach of the flexible sigmoidoscope (approximately 60 cm). The authors recommend that patients who have polyps undergo a colonoscopic examination. When patients are re-evaluated after having colonoscopic neoplastic polypectomy, they should undergo repeat colonoscopy.