Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and pediatric asthma in children: a case-control study

Environ Health. 2013 Jan 3;12:1. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-1.

Abstract

Background: Bronchial asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in Arab children. Environmental pollution has been suggested to be considered causative of asthma, nasal symptoms and bronchitis in both children and adult. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the association between serum polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels, asthma and allergic outcomes among Saudi children aged up to 15 yrs. We hypothesized that increased serum PAHs are associated with allergy, asthma, or respiratory symptoms.

Methods: A total of 195 Saudi children (98 asthma pediatric patients and 97 healthy controls) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. The diagnosis of Asthma was based on established pediatric diagnosis and medications taken.

Results: Asthma related markers showed highly significant differences between children with and without asthma. Thus IgE, resistin and IL-4 were significantly increased (p 0.004, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively) in children with asthma compared with non-asthma control subjects. GMCSF, IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10, on the other hand, were significantly decreased in children with asthma (p 0.003, 0.03, 0.001, 0.004 and 0.03, respectively). Strong associations between serum PAHs levels and biomarkers of childhood asthma were detected in Arabic children. Data confirmed the role of naphthalene, 4H-cyclobenta[def]phenanthrene, 1,2-benzanthracene, chrysene and benzo(e)acephenanthrylene in childhood asthma; levels of these PAHs were correlated with asthma related biomarkers including IgE, resistin, GMCSF and IFN-γ as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines.

Conclusions: This data highlight the pivotal role of specific PAHs in childhood asthma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Air Pollutants / blood
  • Air Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Asthma / chemically induced*
  • Asthma / epidemiology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Chemical Analysis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / epidemiology
  • Hypersensitivity / etiology*
  • Male
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons / blood
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons / toxicity*
  • Resistin / blood
  • Respiratory Sounds / etiology*
  • Saudi Arabia / epidemiology

Substances

  • Air Pollutants
  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Resistin