Long-term outcomes of Shiga toxin hemolytic uremic syndrome

Pediatr Nephrol. 2013 Nov;28(11):2097-105. doi: 10.1007/s00467-012-2383-6. Epub 2013 Jan 4.


Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The outcomes of STEC HUS have improved, and the acute mortality rate in children is 1-4%. About 70% of patients recover completely from the acute episode and the remainder have varying degrees of sequelae. Only a few retrospective studies have reviewed these patients over long periods. Methodological flaws include a lack of strict definitions, changing modes of treatment, ascertainment bias and loss of subjects to follow-up. The kidneys bear the brunt of the long-term damage: proteinuria (15-30% of cases); hypertension (5-15%); chronic kidney disease (CKD; 9-18%); and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD; 3%). A smaller number have extra-renal sequelae: colonic strictures, cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus or brain injury. Most renal sequelae are minor abnormalities, such as treatable hypertension and/or variable proteinuria. Most of the patients who progress to ESKD do not recover normal renal function after the acute episode. Length of anuria (more than 10 days) and prolonged dialysis are the most important risk factors for a poor acute and long-term renal outcome. After the acute episode all patients must be followed for at least 5 years, and severely affected patients should be followed indefinitely if there is proteinuria, hypertension or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / physiopathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / therapy
  • Behavior
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Child
  • Escherichia coli Infections
  • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / complications
  • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / mortality
  • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / psychology
  • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic
  • Nervous System Diseases / etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Shiga Toxin
  • Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Shiga Toxin