Protective effect of geranylgeranylacetone against radiation-induced delayed effects on human keratinocytes

Radiat Res. 2013 Feb;179(2):232-42. doi: 10.1667/RR2717.1. Epub 2013 Jan 4.


Skin exposure to ionizing radiation affects the normal wound healing process. We investigated the beneficial effects of a pharmacological treatment with geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) on keratinocytes using in vitro scratch wound injury assay in nonirradiated and irradiated conditions. Irradiation affected the wound closure of keratinocytes 24 h after scratch injury, whereas re-epithelialization was markedly accelerated after GGA treatment when compared to nontreated keratinocytes. We demonstrated that GGA treatment increased migration of human epidermal keratinocytes and this migratory property was not related to RhoA signaling. Interestingly, Western blot analysis revealed that GGA treatment down-regulated caspase 3 active form expression and up-regulated the activated phenotype by inducing both keratin 6 (K6) expression and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release without modification of the differentiate phenotype. Finally, the proteomic profiling was performed on keratinocytes, showing that global protein changes occurred after irradiation of keratinocytes treated or untreated with GGA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / radiation effects
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Movement / radiation effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / radiation effects
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Epithelial Cells / cytology
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Epithelial Cells / radiation effects
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes / cytology
  • Keratinocytes / drug effects*
  • Keratinocytes / metabolism
  • Keratinocytes / radiation effects*
  • Proteomics
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Time Factors
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism


  • Diterpenes
  • Radiation-Protective Agents
  • rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
  • geranylgeranylacetone