Central vein stenosis (CVS) is commonly seen in patients receiving hemodialysis through an arteriovenous access, threatening the usability of arteriovenous access for dialysis. Subclavian and internal jugular catheters are prime reasons for the development of CVS, especially in the setting of long-term use of multiple catheters. CVS related to cardiac rhythm devices also is seen frequently. Idiopathic CVS can be encountered, although it is less common. Clinical features ultimately become sufficiently prominent to prompt angiographic evaluation. CVS should be evaluated carefully because management must be individualized. The primary method for treatment of CVS is endovascular intervention, including angioplasty and stent placement, whereas surgical options should be pursued in only refractory cases due to the invasiveness of the intervention. Early referral of patients for chronic kidney disease care; timely discussion of kidney replacement modality choices, including nonhemodialysis options such as peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation; placement of arteriovenous access prior to the onset of dialysis; and avoidance of catheters and other central vein instrumentation will prevent the development of CVS in most patients with kidney disease.
Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.