Signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades is organized in complex interconnected subcellular networks. Upon MAPK activation, signals are transferred to targets in different subcellular compartments able to regulate various cellular processes. Therefore, subcellular dissection of individual MAPK modules is vital to understand how a single MAPK can simultaneously mediate many tasks and how a single stimulus can direct different MAPK modules to separated tasks. In this opinion article, we present a subcellular localization prediction of all members of Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK modules validated wherever possible with experimental data. Furthermore, we propose, that at least in part, the complexity of plant MAPK signaling can be explained by unique strategies of subcellular targeting, which will be worth investigating in the near future.
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