Review of the alterations in DNA methylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Surg Today. 2013 Dec;43(12):1355-64. doi: 10.1007/s00595-012-0451-y. Epub 2013 Jan 5.


Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and loss of genome imprinting play a crucial role in esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis, along with genomic and genetic alterations. DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic process that modulates gene expression. Cancer cells exhibit two types of alterations of DNA methylation: global DNA hypomethylation and site-specific CpG island promoter hypermethylation. In several types of human cancers, the methods of detecting an aberrant methylation status have been applied to clinical fields to stratify high-risk groups, detect early cancer, and predict clinical outcomes. Importantly, epigenetic changes, including alterations in DNA methylation, are reversible and can thus be targets for cancer therapy or chemoprevention. Therefore, a better understanding of the DNA methylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is important for optimizing cancer therapy and chemoprevention. We herein summarize the current knowledge regarding alterations in DNA methylation and the clinical implications in ESCC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • CpG Islands / genetics
  • DNA Methylation / genetics*
  • DNA Mismatch Repair / genetics
  • DNA Modification Methylases / physiology
  • DNA Repair / genetics
  • DNA Repair Enzymes / physiology
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / genetics*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Gene Silencing
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • Humans
  • Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements / genetics*
  • MicroRNAs
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • MutS Homolog 2 Protein
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • MLH1 protein, human
  • MicroRNAs
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA Modification Methylases
  • MGMT protein, human
  • MSH2 protein, human
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • MutS Homolog 2 Protein
  • DNA Repair Enzymes