Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse

Exp Physiol. 2013 May;98(5):1038-52. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2012.070722. Epub 2013 Jan 4.


Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Given that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of virally mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for 2 weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantarflexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate, and muscle damage and recovery were monitored over a period of 2-21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, a non-specific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1-injected compared with contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (P<0.05). The reduced prevalence of muscle damage in IGF-1-injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fractional area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-1-injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3 versus 54.1±3.6%, P<0.05). Evidence of the effect of IGF-1 on muscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days) and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1-injected limbs (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate a potential role of IGF-1 in protecting unloaded skeletal muscles from damage and accelerating muscle repair and regeneration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Hindlimb Suspension / physiology*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / biosynthesis*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal / injuries*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Muscular Atrophy / physiopathology*
  • MyoD Protein / biosynthesis
  • Myosins / biosynthesis
  • Recovery of Function
  • Regeneration / physiology


  • MyoD Protein
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Myosins