Picornavirus infections lead to symptoms that can have serious health and economic implications. The viruses in this family (Picornaviridae) have a small genomic RNA and must rely on host proteins for efficient viral gene expression and RNA replication. To ensure their effectiveness as pathogens, picornaviruses have evolved to utilize and/or alter host proteins for the benefit of the virus life cycle. This review discusses the host proteins that are subverted during infection to aid in virus replication. It will also describe proteins and functions that are altered during infection for the benefit of the virus.