The muscular force transmission system: role of the intramuscular connective tissue

J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013 Jan;17(1):95-102. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2012.06.001. Epub 2012 Jul 4.


The objective of this review is to analyze in detail the microscopic structure and relations among muscular fibers, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae. In particular, the multilayer organization and the collagen fiber orientation of these elements are reported. The endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae have not just a role of containment, limiting the expansion of the muscle with the disposition in concentric layers of the collagen tissue, but are fundamental elements for the transmission of muscular force, each one with a specific role. From this review it appears that the muscular fibers should not be studied as isolated elements, but as a complex inseparable from their fibrous components. The force expressed by a muscle depends not only on its anatomical structure, but also the angle at which its fibers are attached to the intramuscular connective tissue and the relation with the epimysium and deep fasciae.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Connective Tissue / anatomy & histology
  • Connective Tissue / ultrastructure*
  • Fascia / anatomy & histology
  • Fascia / ultrastructure
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Muscle Fibers, Skeletal / ultrastructure*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / anatomy & histology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / ultrastructure*
  • Musculoskeletal System / anatomy & histology
  • Musculoskeletal System / ultrastructure
  • Role
  • Sarcomeres / ultrastructure
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Stress, Mechanical