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, 54 (1), 52-9

Association of Chronic Liver Disease With Depression: A Population-Based Study


Association of Chronic Liver Disease With Depression: A Population-Based Study

Keanu Lee et al. Psychosomatics.


Objective: Chronic liver diseases (CLD) have been associated with depression. Our aim was to assess the association of different types of CLD with depression in a population-based cohort.

Methods: We examined data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005-2010). We included adult patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C), chronic hepatitis B (CH-B), alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) survey was used as a depression screener. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine independent variables associated with each type of CLD and depression.

Results: The cohort included 10,231 NHANES participants. After multivariate analysis, CH-C was independently associated with age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.07), male gender (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.19-2.97), African American race/ethnicity (OR = 2.50, 95% CI:1.50-4.18), smoking (OR = 6.20, 95% CI: 1.62-23.68), injection drug use (OR = 52.86, 95% CI:32.87-85.03), and depression (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 1.78-4.62). CH-B was independently associated with being non-Caucasian (for African Americans OR = 5.09, 95% CI: 2.41-10.76, for other races OR = 4.74, 95% CI: 2.32-9.70). ALD was independently associated with younger age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99), male gender (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.95), Mexican American race/ethnicity (OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87-3.69), and moderate to heavy smoking (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.46-2.96). Finally, presence of insulin resistance [OR = 2.65 95% CI: 1.98-3.55], diabetes [OR = 1.54 95% CI: 1.11-2.13], and Mexican American race/ethnicity [OR = 2.03(1.35-3.06)], were predictive of NAFLD.

Conclusions: Although depression has been suspected to be associated with a number of CLD, this association remains strong only for CH-C.

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