Neuroimaging and other biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: the changing landscape of early detection

Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2013;9:621-48. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185535. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Abstract

The goal of this review is to provide an overview of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), with emphasis on neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. We first review biomarker changes in patients with late-onset AD, including findings from studies using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), advanced MRI techniques (diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, perfusion), positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose, amyloid tracers, and other neurochemical tracers, and CSF protein levels. Next, we evaluate findings from these biomarkers in preclinical and prodromal stages of AD including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-MCI conditions conferring elevated risk. We then discuss related findings in patients with dominantly inherited AD. We conclude with a discussion of the current theoretical framework for the role of biomarkers in AD and emergent directions for AD biomarker research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis*
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Biomarkers* / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / diagnosis*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / pathology
  • Early Diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Neuroimaging / methods*
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / methods*
  • Prodromal Symptoms*

Substances

  • Biomarkers