Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

Clin Psychol Rev. 2013 Mar;33(2):215-28. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.11.005. Epub 2012 Dec 7.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention-disorganization and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / economics
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / mortality
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology
  • Delivery of Health Care / economics
  • Delivery of Health Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / etiology
  • Suicide / psychology
  • Wounds and Injuries / etiology