Many restorative therapies that promote brain repair are under development. Stroke is very heterogeneous, highlighting the need to identify target populations and to understand intersubject differences in treatment response. Several neuroimaging measures have shown promise as biomarkers and predictors, including measures of structure and function, in gray matter and white matter. The choice of biomarker and predictor can differ with the content of therapy and with the population under study, for example, contralesional hemisphere measures may be of particular importance in patients with more severe injury. Studies of training effects in healthy subjects provide insights useful to brain repair. Limitations of published studies include a focus on chronic stroke, however the brain is most galvanized to respond to restorative therapies in the early days after stroke. Multimodal approaches might be the most robust approach for stratifying patients and so for optimizing prescription of restorative therapies after stroke.