The evolving role of lyophilized plasma in remote damage control resuscitation in the French Armed Forces Health Service

Transfusion. 2013 Jan:53 Suppl 1:65S-71S. doi: 10.1111/trf.12038.


Freeze-dried plasma was developed by the US Army for the resuscitation of combat casualties during World War II. The French Military Blood Institute began producing French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 1949, in accordance with French blood product guidelines. Since 2010, a photochemical pathogen inactivation process has been implemented to reduce the remaining transfusion-related infectious risk. All quality controls for this procedure verify that the hemostatic properties of FLYP are conserved. FLYP is compatible with all blood types, can be stored at room temperature for 2 years, and its reconstitution requires less than 6 minutes. As a result, FLYP allows quick delivery of all the coagulation proteins and the application of a 1:1 ratio of FLYP and red blood cells in the context of a massive transfusion. Hemovigilance data collected in France since 1994 have included FLYP. Results indicate no reporting of infection related to the use of FLYP. Clinical monitoring with a focus on hemostasis was implemented in 2002 and expanded in 2010. The data, obtained from overseas operations, confirmed the indications, the safety and the clinical efficacy of FLYP. Further research is needed to determine specific indications for FLYP in the therapeutic management of civilian patients with severe hemorrhage.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Banks / methods
  • Blood Banks / standards
  • Blood Banks / trends
  • Blood Preservation / methods*
  • Blood Preservation / standards
  • Blood Preservation / trends
  • Blood Safety / methods
  • Blood Safety / standards
  • Blood Safety / trends
  • France
  • Freeze Drying / methods
  • Hemorrhage / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Military Medicine / methods*
  • Military Medicine / standards
  • Military Medicine / trends
  • Plasma*
  • Resuscitation / methods*
  • Resuscitation / standards
  • Resuscitation / trends
  • Warfare
  • Wounds and Injuries / therapy*