Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk, but the association between OSA and myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. Our objectives were to compare the frequency of OSA in patients with acute MI and in a population-based sample of control subjects, and to evaluate the impact of CPAP on recurrent MI and coronary revascularization.
Methods: Case-control study with a 6-year follow-up of the case cohort. 192 acute MI patients and 96 matched control subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD) (ratio 2:1). After overnight polysomnography, CPAP was recommended if apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5, and a mean daily use >3.5h/day was considered necessary to maintain the treatment. Lipids, fasting glucose, blood pressure, spirometry, comorbidity and current treatment were also registered. End-points were recurrent MI or need of revascularization.
Results: OSA was an independent predictor of MI, with odds ratio 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9-8.3, p=0.017). 63 MI patients without OSA, 52 untreated patients with OSA and 71 OSA patients treated with CPAP were included in the follow-up study. After adjustment for confounding factors, treated OSA patients had a lower risk of recurrent MI (adjusted hazard ratio 0.16 [95%CI 0.03-0.76, p=0.021]) and revascularization (adjusted hazard ratio 0.15 [95%CI 0.03-0.79, p=0.025]) than untreated OSA patients, and similar to non-OSA patients.
Conclusion: Mild-severe OSA is an independent risk factor for MI. Risk of recurrent MI and revascularization was lower in OSA patients who tolerated CPAP.
Keywords: CPAP; Myocardial infarction; Prognosis; Revascularization; Sleep apnea.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.