As the volume and complexity of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) continue to rise, there is increasing attention directed at reducing exposure to ionizing radiation. This has led to the emergence of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) as a stand-alone imaging modality guiding AF ablation. In addition to directing transseptal puncture, ICE may be used to identify left atrial structures and to guide the manipulation of catheters. ICE may also be used to visualize the esophagus in real-time and to assist with early identification of procedural complications. This review provides detailed step-by-step directions for identification of relevant structures and summarizes the use of ICE during AF ablation.
©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.