Ferrate(VI) oxidation of propranolol: kinetics and products

Chemosphere. 2013 Mar;91(1):105-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.001. Epub 2013 Jan 7.


The oxidation of propranolol (PPL), a β-blocker by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) was studied by performing kinetics, stoichiometry, and analysis of the reaction products. The rate law for the oxidation of PPL by Fe(VI) was first-order with respect to each reactant. The dependence of second-order rate constants of the reaction of Fe(VI) and PPL on pH was explained using acid-base equilibrium of Fe(VI) and PPL. The required molar stoichiometry for the complete removal of PPL was determined to be 6:1 ([Fe(VI)]:[PPL]). The identified products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were oxidized product (OP)-292, OP-308, and OP-282. The formed OPs could possibly compete with the parent molecule to react with Fe(VI) and thus resulted in a non-linear relationship between degradation of PPL and the added amount of Fe(VI). Rate and removal studies indicate the Fe(VI) is able to oxidize PPL and hence can also oxidize other β-blockers, e.g., atenolol and metoprolol.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / analysis
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / chemistry*
  • Environmental Pollutants / analysis
  • Environmental Pollutants / chemistry*
  • Iron / chemistry*
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Chemical
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Propranolol / analysis
  • Propranolol / chemistry*


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • ferrate ion
  • Propranolol
  • Iron