Pet dogs and cats can play an important role in the transmission of zoonotic nematodes such as Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, by excreting eggs directly into the human environment, without the involvement of vectors or intermediate hosts. Human toxocarosis remains a hazard despite the availability of highly effective anthelmintics for dogs and cats. A good understanding of the biology and epidemiology of these parasites, and the risk factors that lead to their transmission to humans is required for effective prevention strategies. In this respect, the maintenance of high quality continuing education for veterinarians and the provision of suitably presented information to pet owners are of priority importance. A closer collaboration between veterinary and public health professionals within the 'One Health' concept is also required.
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