Live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccine in school-age children

Am J Dis Child. 1990 May;144(5):595-600. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.1990.02150290089035.


In 1985, we enrolled 189 school-age children by family in a double-blind study to determine protection against influenza by a single dose of cold-recombinant bivalent A vaccine or commercial trivalent inactivated vaccine compared with placebo. All children in school or day care, 3 to 18 years of age, in an enrolled family received the same preparation. Following vaccination, 60% and 21% of cold-recombinant bivalent A vaccine recipients and 73% and 83% of trivalent inactivated vaccine recipients demonstrated fourfold or greater response in hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titer to A/H1N1 and A/H3N2, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of all trivalent inactivated vaccine recipients demonstrated a fourfold or greater serologic response to H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B following a single dose of vaccine. During the 1985-1986 influenza B/Ann Arbor epidemic, heterotypic protection afforded by the influenza B/USSR component of trivalent inactivated vaccine was 62% compared with placebo. A single dose of trivalent inactivated vaccine protected school-age children, 6 to 19 years of age, from influenza B infection; the rate of protection was 64% against infection and 73% against febrile illness.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Antibodies, Viral / analysis
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / immunology
  • Influenza B virus / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated