Maternal vitamin D status and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Jun;26(9):889-99. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2013.765849. Epub 2013 Feb 11.


Objective: To estimate the associations between maternal vitamin D status and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Study design: We searched electronic databases of the human literature in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to October, 2012 using the following keywords: "vitamin D" and "status" or "deficiency" or "insufficiency" and "pregnancy". A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on observational studies that reported the association between maternal blood vitamin D levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm birth or small-for-gestational age (SGA).

Results: Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Women with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level less than 50 nmol/l in pregnancy experienced an increased risk of preeclampsia [odds ratio (OR) 2.09 (95% confidence intervals 1.50-2.90)], GDM [OR 1.38 (1.12-1.70)], preterm birth [OR 1.58 (1.08-2.31)] and SGA [OR 1.52 (1.08-2.15)].

Conclusion: Low maternal vitamin D levels in pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, GDM, preterm birth and SGA.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology
  • Diabetes, Gestational / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Small for Gestational Age / blood
  • Pre-Eclampsia / blood
  • Pre-Eclampsia / epidemiology
  • Pre-Eclampsia / etiology
  • Pregnancy / blood*
  • Pregnancy Complications / blood
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology


  • Vitamin D