Background: The introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV7) had profound public health effects across the globe. PCV7 vaccination in a national immunization program is generally considered cost-effective and potentially cost-saving. Two new PCVs have been launched, a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).
Objective: This article examines the public health and economic effects of pediatric national immunization programs of PCV10 and PCV13 in Denmark and Sweden.
Methods: A previously published decision-analytic model was used to estimate the impact of PCV10 and PCV13 on reducing cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia (PNE), and acute otitis media (AOM) by using country-specific incidence, serotype coverage, disease sequelae, mortality, vaccine effectiveness, indirect effects, costs, and utilities. Direct effects for PCV13- and PCV10-covered serotypes were assumed similar to PCV7. PCV13 was assumed to confer an indirect effect, similar to PCV7, whereas PCV10 was not. Assumptions were tested in sensitivity analyses.
Results: PCV13 is expected to save 280.7 million DKK (Danish kroner) in Denmark and 288.2 million SEK (Swedish kronor) in Sweden in direct costs compared with a vaccination program with PCV10. In both Denmark and Sweden, the results of this study indicate that, compared with PCV10, PCV13 will have a greater impact on disease in life-years gained (LYG), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, IPD cases avoided, PNE cases avoided, AOM cases avoided, and in deaths avoided. For Denmark PCV13, it was estimated to result in 10,051 LYG; 9063 QALYs gained; 237 additional IPD cases avoided; 12,094 additional PNE cases avoided; 958 additional cases of AOM avoided; and 882 additional deaths avoided. For Sweden PCV13, it was estimated to result in 4245 LYG; 3953 QALYs gained; 379 additional IPD cases avoided; 8210 additional PNE cases avoided; 1459 additional cases of AOM avoided; and 378 additional deaths avoided. In all sensitivity analyses, PCV13 was less costly and more effective compared with PCV10.
Conclusions: In this analysis, a national immunization program with PCV13 was found to be good value for money and estimated to prevent additional cases of disease among children and nonvaccinated individuals and save additional costs due to treatment of pneumococcal disease, when compared with PCV10 in Denmark and Sweden.
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