Kaposi sarcoma is the most common HIV-associated neoplasm, frequently presenting with oral mucosal involvement. This retrospective study aimed to assess and highlight the histomorphological spectrum of oral Kaposi sarcoma. A total of 135 cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2011 were retrieved from the archives of the Oral and Dental Hospital of the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Following histologic review, each case was placed into 1 of 7 categories based on the predominant pattern of growth. These histologic divisions included lesions designated as solid, lymphangioma-like, telangiectatic, desmoplastic, lymphangiectatic, ecchymotic, and anaplastic. The presence of coexistent pathology was identified in 25 cases, largely represented by superimposed candidiasis. Concomitant cytomegalovirus and non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation were also observed. Although the prognostic significance of these variants is yet to be determined, the appreciation and recognition of such morphologic diversity remains essential in distinguishing these lesions from possible mimickers.
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