Racial and gender disparities among patients with gout

Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2013 Feb;15(2):307. doi: 10.1007/s11926-012-0307-x.


Gout affects 8.3 million Americans according to NHANES 2007-2008, approximately 3.9 % of the US population. Gout has substantial effect on physical function, productivity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and health care costs. Uncontrolled gout is also associated with significant use of emergency care services. Women are less likely to have gout than men, but in the postmenopausal years the gender difference in disease incidence decreases. Compared with whites, racial and/or ethnic minorities, especially blacks, have higher prevalence of gout. Blacks are also less likely to receive quality gout care, leading to disproportionate morbidity. Women are less likely than men to receive allopurinol, and less likely to undergo joint aspirations for crystal analysis to establish diagnosis, but those on urate-lowering therapy are as likely as, or more likely than, men to undergo serum urate check within six months of initiation. Although a few studies provide the knowledge related to gender and race and/or ethnicity disparities for gout, several knowledge gaps exist in gout epidemiology and outcomes differences by gender and race and/or ethnicity. These should be investigated in future studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Gout / epidemiology*
  • Gout / ethnology
  • Gout / genetics
  • Gout / therapy
  • Gout Suppressants / adverse effects
  • Gout Suppressants / therapeutic use
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Healthcare Disparities
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors


  • Gout Suppressants