Short- and mid-term changes in bone mineral density after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

Obes Surg. 2013 Jul;23(7):861-6. doi: 10.1007/s11695-013-0866-6.


Background: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for achieving a significant weight loss. Morbidities present a significant reduction after bariatric surgery, but it may also result in several health complications, related to nutritional deficiencies, including bone metabolism. Several studies have reported a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), but most of them referring to malabsorptive procedures. Restrictive procedures do not imply changes in gastrointestinal anatomy, so that one may expect fewer metabolic disturbances.

Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study of all morbidly obese patients undergoing LSG between 2008 and 2011 at our institution. Bone densitometry was performed before surgery and 1 and 2 years after the intervention. Body size measurements, analytical variables and densitometric values in the lumbar spine (BMD, t score and z score) were investigated.

Results: Forty-two patients were included, 39 females and 3 males. Mean BMI was 51.21 kg/m(2). Mean excessive BMI loss was 79.9 % after 1 year and 80.6 % after 2 years. Mean BMD values for spine increased progressively, reaching statistical significance at 1 and at 2 years. Percentage of BMD increase was 5.7 % at 1 year and 7.9 % at 2 years. An inverse correlation was observed between BMD increase and parathyroid hormone (PTH) decrease and a direct correlation between BMD and vitamin D increase.

Conclusion: Bone mineral density showed a progressive increase during the first and second year after sleeve gastrectomy. BMD changes are not associated with weight loss, but showed a direct correlation with vitamin D and an inverse correlation with PTH levels.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Bone Density*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastroplasty* / adverse effects
  • Gastroplasty* / methods
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Laparoscopy* / adverse effects
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / metabolism*
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Malnutrition / etiology
  • Malnutrition / metabolism*
  • Malnutrition / physiopathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status
  • Obesity, Morbid / metabolism*
  • Obesity, Morbid / physiopathology
  • Obesity, Morbid / surgery*
  • Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin D / metabolism
  • Weight Loss


  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D