Five-year study of ocular injuries due to fireworks in India

Int Ophthalmol. 2013 Aug;33(4):381-5. doi: 10.1007/s10792-013-9714-x. Epub 2013 Jan 13.


To study the demographic profile, cause, type and severity of ocular injuries, their complications and final visual outcome following fireworks around the time of Deepawali in India. Case records of patients who presented with firework-related injuries during 2005-2009 at the time of Deepawali were reviewed. Data with respect to demographic profile of patients, cause and time of injury, time of presentation and types of intervention were analyzed. Visual acuity at presentation and final follow-up, anterior and posterior segment findings, and any diagnostic and surgical interventions carried out were noted. One hundred and one patients presented with firework-related ocular injuries, of which 77.5 % were male. The mean age was 17.60 ± 11.9 years, with 54 % being ≤14 years of age. The mean time of presentation was 8.9 h. Seventeen patients had open globe injury (OGI) and 84 had closed globe injury (CGI). Fountains were the most common cause of CGI and bullet bombs were the most common cause of OGI. Mean log MAR visual acuity at presentation was 0.64 and 1.22 and at last follow-up was 0.09 and 0.58 for CGI and OGI, respectively (p < 0.05). Patients with CGI had a better visual outcome. Three patients with OGI developed permanent blindness. Factors associated with poor visual outcome included poor initial visual acuity, OGI, intraocular foreign body (IOFB), retinal detachment and development of endophthalmitis. Firework injuries were seen mostly in males and children. Poor visual outcome was associated with poor initial visual acuity, OGI, IOFB, retinal detachment and development of endophthalmitis, while most patients with CGI regained good vision.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Blast Injuries / epidemiology
  • Blast Injuries / etiology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Explosive Agents*
  • Eye Injuries / complications
  • Eye Injuries / epidemiology
  • Eye Injuries / etiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Visual Acuity
  • Young Adult


  • Explosive Agents