Risk factors associated with peritoneal-dialysis-related peritonitis

Int J Nephrol. 2012;2012:483250. doi: 10.1155/2012/483250. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Abstract

Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990-2012) and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient's choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.