An adhesive bone marrow scaffold and bone morphogenetic-2 protein carrier for cartilage tissue engineering

Biomacromolecules. 2013 Mar 11;14(3):637-43. doi: 10.1021/bm301585e. Epub 2013 Feb 4.


A chondroitin sulfate-bone marrow (CS-BM) adhesive hydrogel was used to localize rhBMP-2 to enhance articular cartilage tissue formation. Chondrocyte pellet culture revealed that 0.1 and 1 μg/mL of rhBMP-2 enhanced sulfated-GAG content. rhBMP-2 localization within the hydrogels was investigated, and it was found that BM, CS-NHS, and rhBMP-2 levels and time affected rhBMP-2 retention. Retention was modulated from 82 to 99% over a 3-week period for the material formulations investigated. To evaluate carrier efficacy, rhBMP-2 and bovine articular chondrocytes were encapsulated within CS-BM, and biochemical evaluation revealed significant increases in total collagen production with rhBMP-2. Histological analysis revealed more robust tissue formation and greater type-II collagen production with encapsulated rhBMP-2. Subsequently, a subcutaneous culture of hydrogels revealed increased total collagen, type-II to type-I collagen ratio, and sulfated GAG in samples carrying rhBMP-2. These findings indicate the development of a multifunctional system capable of localizing rhBMP-2 to enhance repair tissue quality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry
  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology*
  • Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / genetics*
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / metabolism
  • Cartilage, Articular / cytology
  • Cattle
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Chondrocytes / chemistry
  • Chondrocytes / cytology
  • Chondroitin Sulfates / chemistry
  • Collagen Type I / metabolism
  • Collagen Type II / metabolism
  • Hydrogels / chemistry
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Wound Healing


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Collagen Type I
  • Collagen Type II
  • Hydrogels
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2
  • Chondroitin Sulfates