Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by the aggregation of two proteins, amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau, and by neuronal and synaptic loss. Although some drugs have been shown to slow the progression of the disease, at present no treatment has been developed that can stop or reverse the progression of the pathology. Recently, new therapeutic strategies have been proposed for the treatment of the disease. Among these, the development of stem cells and gene-modified cells is an especially promising therapeutic approach for AD. In this review we highlight the experimental and preclinical studies that have been focused on stem cell-based and gene-modified cell-based uses as potential therapies for AD. The potential clinical applications are also discussed.