The crystallization kinetics of naproxen (NAP) in NAP/polyethylene glycol (NAP/PEG) solid dispersions prepared at different crystallization temperatures was studied by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). It was found that the crystallization rate of NAP was faster at 25 °C in comparison to 40 °C. This resulted in different sizes of NAP domains, and consequently impacted the dissolution behavior. The sizes of NAP domains prepared at 40 °C were larger than those at 25 °C, as determined with surface area analysis, utilizing second-order nonlinear optical imaging of chiral crystals (SONICC). Consistent with this observation, the corresponding dissolution rate of the NAP/PEG dispersion prepared at 40 °C was indeed slower than that prepared at 25 °C. The microstructure of the NAP/PEG solid dispersions and the dissolution behavior also showed a dependence on the chemical composition of the solid dispersions.